The Nano-Pulse Stimulation (NPS) pulses are applied directly to tissue, creating a transient opening of small pores in cell and organelle membranes. We have found that by controlling this disruption of the cellular organelles, we can direct the cellular response quite specifically, , , , , . For the treatment of cancer we believe that we can trigger a signaling cascade within the tumor cells that ends in immunogenic apoptosis. Immunogenic apoptosis is a process in which cells are induced to die in a natural way, initiating their own programmed cell death, engaging the immune system to clear damaged, diseased, or aged cells and enrolling cytotoxic T cells to recognize and eliminate cells of the same tumor type.
 Sun Y, Vernier PT, Behrend M, Wang J, Thu MM, Gundersen M, and Marcu L. Fluorescence microscopy imaging of electroperturbation in mammalian cells. J Biomed Opt 2006; 11(2):024010.
 Walker K III, Pakhomova ON, Kolb JF, Schoenbach KH, Stuck BE, Murphy MR, and Pakhomov AG. Oxygen enhances lethal effect of high-intensity, ultra-short electrical pulses. Bioelectromagn J 2006;27: 221–225.
 Vernier PT, Ziegler MJ, Sun Y, Chang WV, Gundersen MA, Tieleman DP. Nanopore formation and phosphatidylserine externalization in a phospholipid bilayer at high transmembrane potential. J Am Chem Soc 2006; 128 (19): 6288-9.
 Nuccitelli R, Chen X, Pakhomov AG, Baldwin WH, Sheikh S, Pomicter JL, Ren W et al. A new pulsed electric field therapy for melanoma disrupts the tumor’s blood supply and causes complete remission without recurrence. Int’l J Cancer 2009; 125: 438–445.
 Ren W, Sain NM, Beebe SJ. Nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) activate intrinsic caspase-dependent and caspase-independent cell death in Jurkat cell. Biochem Biophys Res Comm 2012; 421: 808-812.
 Chen R, Sain NM, Harlow KT, Chen YJ, Shires PK, Heller R, Beebe SJ. A protective effect after clearance of orthotopic rat hepatocellular carcinoma by nanosecond pulsed electric fields. European Journal of Cancer 2014; 5 (15):2705-2713.