Schoenbach, Beebe and Buescher first observed the effects of Nano-Pulse Stimulation™ treatment on mammalian cells at Old Dominion University (ODU) and Eastern Virginia Medical School (EVMS).
Schoenbach KH, Beebe SJ, Buescher ES. Intracellular effect of ultrashort electrical pulses. Bioelectromagnetics. 2001;22(6):440-8.
Scientists at ODU demonstrated NPS™ technology can be used as a new, drug-free therapy for treating solid skin melanomas.
Nuccitelli R, Pliquett U, Chen X, Ford W, James SR, Beebe SJ, et al. Nanosecond pulsed electric fields cause melanomas to self-destruct. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;343(2):351-60.
Garon et al. evaluated cell viability of a wide range of malignant cell types in vitro and in vivo.
Garon EB, Sawcer D, Vernier PT, Tang T, Sun Y, Marcu L, et al. In vitro and in vivo evaluation and a case report of intense nanosecond pulsed electric field as a local therapy for human malignancies. Int J Cancer. 2007;121(3):675-82.
Investigators demonstrated that NPS-treated melanomas did not recur.
Nuccitelli R, Chen X, Pakhomov AG, Baldwin WH, Sheikh S, Pomicter JL, et al. A new pulsed electric field therapy for melanoma disrupts the tumor's blood supply and causes complete remission without recurrence. Int J Cancer. 2009;125(2):438-45.
Investigators eliminated all melanomas in transgenic mice developing the melanomas within their own skin.
Nuccitelli R, Tran K, Lui K, Huynh J, Athos B, Kreis M, et al. Non-thermal Nanoelectroablation of UV-Induced Murine Melanomas Stimulates an Immune Response. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2012;25:618-29.
NPS treatment generated a vaccine-like effect after being used to treat liver tumors in an orthotopic animal model.
Chen R, Sain NM, Harlow KT, Chen YJ, Shires PK, Heller R, et al. A protective effect after clearance of orthotopic rat hepatocellular carcinoma by nanosecond pulsed electric fields. Eur J Cancer. 2014;50(15):2705-13.
Pulse Biosciences replicated the immuno-protection result in another rat strain and also demonstrated that this protection requires the presence of cytotoxic T cells (CD8+). Pulse Biosciences published data demonstrating the vaccine-effect tumor cell lines treated with NPS technology. Pulse Biosciences demonstrated for the first time that NPS-treated fibrosarcoma cells could be used as a vaccine to protect mice against fibrosarcoma subdermal allografts.
Nuccitelli R, Berridge JC, Mallon Z, Kreis M, Athos B, Nuccitelli P. Nanoelectroablation of Murine Tumors Triggers a CD8-Dependent Inhibition of Secondary Tumor Growth. PLoS One. 2015;10(7):e0134364.
Pulse Biosciences published data demonstrating that NPS treatment of three different tumor cell lines triggers immunogenic cell death, releasing danger-associated molecular pattern (DAMPs) molecules that recruit dendritic cells to the treatment site.
Nuccitelli R, McDaniel A, Anand S, Cha J, Mallon Z, Berridge JC, et al. Nano-Pulse Stimulation is a physical modality that can trigger immunogenic tumor cell death. Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer. 2017;5:32.
Martin Kast’s immunology lab at USC Medical School applies NPS technology to treat HPV-16-associated tumors in mice and demonstrates an adaptive immune response that prevents re-challenge tumor growth in 25% of the treated mice.
Skeate JG, Da Silva DM, Chavez-Juan E, Anand S, Nuccitelli R, Kast WM. Nano-Pulse Stimulation induces immunogenic cell death in human papillomavirus-transformed tumors and initiates an adaptive immune response. PloS One. 2018;13(1):e0191311.